For the first economic impact payment (EIP1), which was sent to most taxpayers in early-to-mid 2020, you had to wait until the IRS sent you a letter with instructions on how to follow up with the missing payment.
If you have not received all or part of your second economic impact payment (EIP2) and chose to have your preparation fees paid from your refund when you filed your taxes in 2019, the IRS is working on getting your EIP2 directly deposited to your correct bank account.
If you still haven’t received EIP2 by January 15, request your account transcript to see if the IRS has sent it.
For EIP3, the bank is required to return the stimulus payment to the IRS, and the IRS will update the Get My Payment tool to the “Need More Information” status. From there, you can provide correct banking information; however, the IRS may decide to send your payment by check or debit card.